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Mold Discussion

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Mold Perspective
Professional Quotes and Comments
How The Scare Began
What is Mold?
Why is Mold Toxic?
What Makes Mold A Health Hazard?
10 Things You  Should Know About Mold
Why Is Mold Growing In My Home?
Can Mold Cause Health Problems?
How Do I Get Rid Of Mold?
Who Should Do The Cleanup
Tips and Techniques
What To Wear To Clean Up Moldy Areas?
How Do I Know When the Remediation or Cleanup is Finished?
Moisture and Mold Prevention and Control Tips
Actions That Will Help Reduce Humidity
Actions That Will Help Prevent Condensation
Suspicion Of Hidden Mold
Investigating hidden mold problems
Cleanup and Biocides

Mold is another area, like Radon Gas, that really deserves a careful review by the home buyer, home seller, property management company, or commercial entity. 

Mold has seemed to have gotten a pretty bad rap over the past few years, and may not be the serious threat that some have made it out to be. 

I have put together some excellent information below with quick links to specific topics.  Hopefully, this will help increase your knowledge and understanding about mold.

The information presented clearly questions the viability and need of mold testing in homes.  Clearly, there are situations where testing for mold should be done.  My hope is that this information will help inform those considering the need or requirement for a mold test.

I have been trained and certainly will perform the necessary tests for mold should the client feel that this is something they really need.

The Not-for-profit Perspective on Mold Sampling

by Kenton Shepard

Mold is everywhere, every single home has it. Mold fungi are a natural, necessary part of the global environment. In the vast majority of homes in the US mold is not much of a problem and sampling to determine the species of mold fungus is a waste of time and money. If you have a little mold, clean it up. If you have a lot, get rid of it.

The EPA recommendation for the amount of mold at which remediation should take place is 10 square feet or more of visible mold colony.

 

Here’s what organizations and professionals concerned with human health rather than profiting from mold sampling have to say…

US Dept. of Health and Human Services

Center for Disease Control (CDC) 

Generally, it is not necessary to identify the species of mold growing in a residence, and the CDC does not recommend routine sampling for molds…sampling and culturing are not reliable in determining your health risk.”

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 

 “In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, Testing or sampling for is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building’s compliance with federal mold standards.

Forensic Applications Consulting Technologies, Inc.

Caoimn P. Connell
 Industrial Hygienist, Bailey, CO

Mr. Connell is a member of the committees writing both the International Mold Sampling Standards and the Colorado Mold Sampling Standards.

“In a nut shell, here is my take: 99.99% of all mold fears expressed by homeowners are foundationless; 99.99% of all samples collected in homes for mold never needed to be taken; 90% of all “mold remediation” projects were never needed.”

Is sampling for mold needed? In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards. Surface sampling may be useful to determine if an area has been adequately cleaned or remediated. Sampling for mold should be conducted by professionals who have specific experience in designing mold sampling protocols, sampling methods, and interpreting results. Sample analysis should follow analytical methods recommended by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), or other professional organizations.

 

How the Scare Began

In 1991 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) published a paper that made mold appear to be a creature to be feared. Toxic Mold! The media seized the opportunity to sensationalize this scary paper and made tons of money. Mold samplers and remediators exploded from the starting gate and went pounding off in pursuit of the American wallet with the bit clenched tightly between their teeth.

By the time the CDC retracted the paper in 1996 due to outcry from the scientific community, the idea that mold was toxic and something to fear was firmly entrenched across the country and companies profiting from the scare were doing their best to keep up with demand for sampling and analysis.

Here are some non-sensationalized facts about mold fungus…

What is mold?

Molds are fungi. To supply themselves with food, they consume various materials by dissolving them with enzymes. To produce these enzymes, mold fungi need water. Where there is no water, there will be no active mold fungi busily producing millions of spores with which to degrade the quality of the air in your home.

The presence of mold in a home is really a red flag indicating that a home has a moisture problem.

Why is mold toxic?

Unfortunately for mold fungi, competition for food exists even between mold species. In an effort to win the food battle, over a span of many, many years, toxigenic mold species have developed toxins (called mycotoxins) to use against their fungal competition. In a very few cases, people are effected by these mycotoxins.

What makes mold a health hazard?

Indoor air quality

Mold fungi reproduce by releasing spores. Spores are so small you need a microscope to see them. High levels of spore concentrations in indoor air are by far the most common health hazard related to mold.

Elevated spore concentrations are most likely to effect the very young or very old, those with a weakened immune system, lung disease, allergies or asthma.

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Ten Things You Should Know About Mold

1.  Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mold exposures include allergic reactions, asthma,
     and other respiratory complaints.

2. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control
     indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

3. If mold is a problem in your home or school, you must clean up the mold and eliminate sources of moisture.

4. Fix the source of the water problem or leak to prevent mold growth.

5. Reduce indoor humidity (to 30-60%) to decrease mold growth by:

    a. venting bathrooms, dryers, and other moisture-generating sources to the outside;
    b. using air conditioners and dehumidifiers;
    c. increasing ventilation;
    d. and using exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing, and cleaning.

6. Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent mold
     growth.

7. Clean mold off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely. Absorbent materials such as
    ceiling tiles, that are moldy, may need to be replaced.

8. Prevent condensation: Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows, piping,
    exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.

9. In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking fountains, by
    classroom sinks, or on concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).

10. Molds can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance, providing moisture is
      present. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.

 

Additional Questions Regarding Mold

 

Why is mold growing in my home?

Molds are part of the natural environment. Outdoors, molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees, but indoors, mold growth should be avoided. Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air. Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture.

Can mold cause health problems?

Molds are usually not a problem indoors, unless mold spores land on a wet or damp spot and begin growing. Molds have the potential to cause health problems. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some cases, potentially toxic substances (mycotoxins). Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Allergic responses include hay fever-type symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, and skin rash (dermatitis). Allergic reactions to mold are common. They can be immediate or delayed. Molds can also cause asthma attacks in people with asthma who are allergic to mold. In addition, mold exposure can irritate the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs of both mold-allergic and non-allergic people. Symptoms other than the allergic and irritant types are not commonly reported as a result of inhaling mold. Research on mold and health effects is ongoing. This brochure provides a brief overview; it does not describe all potential health effects related to mold exposure. For more detailed information consult a health professional. You may also wish to consult your state or local health department.

How do I get rid of mold?

It is impossible to get rid of all mold and mold spores indoors; some mold spores will be found floating through the air and in house dust. The mold spores will not grow if moisture is not present. Indoor mold growth can and should be prevented or controlled by controlling moisture indoors. If there is mold growth in your home, you must clean up the mold and fix the water problem. If you clean up the mold, but don't fix the water problem, then, most likely, the mold problem will come back.

Who Should do the Cleanup

Who should do the cleanup depends on a number of factors. One consideration is the size of the mold problem. If the moldy area is less than about 10 square feet (less than roughly a 3 ft. by 3 ft. patch), in most cases, you can handle the job yourself, following the guidelines below.

  • If there has been a lot of water damage, and/or mold growth covers more than 10 square feet, consult the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guide: Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings. Although focused on schools and commercial buildings, this document is applicable to other building types. It is available free by calling the EPA Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse at (800) 438-4318.
  • If you choose to hire a contractor (or other professional service provider) to do the cleanup, make sure the contractor has experience cleaning up mold. Check references and ask the contractor to follow the recommendations of the EPA, the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), or other guidelines from professional or government organizations.
  • If you suspect that the heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) system may be contaminated with mold (it is part of an identified moisture problem, for instance, or there is mold near the intake to the system), consult EPA's guide Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned before taking further action. Do not run the HVAC system if you know or suspect that it is contaminated with mold - it could spread mold throughout the building. Call (800) 438-4318 for a free copy.
  • If the water and/or mold damage was caused by sewage or other contaminated water, then call in a professional who has experience cleaning and fixing buildings damaged by contaminated water.
  • If you have health concerns, consult a health professional before starting cleanup.

Tips and Techniques

The tips and techniques presented in this section will help you clean up your mold problem. Professional cleaners or remediators may use methods not covered in this publication. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage. It may not be possible to clean an item so that its original appearance is restored.

  • Fix plumbing leaks and other water problems as soon as possible. Dry all items completely.
  • Scrub mold off hard surfaces with detergent and water, and dry completely.
  • Absorbent or porous materials, such as ceiling tiles and carpet, may have to be thrown away if they become moldy. Mold can grow on or fill in the empty spaces and crevices of porous materials, so the mold may be difficult or impossible to remove completely.
  • Avoid exposing yourself or others to mold.
  • Do not paint or caulk moldy surfaces. Clean up the mold and dry the surfaces before painting. Paint applied over moldy surfaces is likely to peel.
  • If you are unsure about how to clean an item, or if the item is expensive or of sentimental value, you may wish to consult a specialist. Specialists in furniture repair, restoration, painting, art restoration and conservation, carpet and rug cleaning, water damage, and fire or water restoration are commonly listed in phone books. Be sure to ask for and check references. Look for specialists who are affiliated with professional organizations.

What to Wear when Cleaning Moldy Areas

  • Avoid breathing in mold or mold spores. In order to limit your exposure to airborne mold, you may want to wear an N-95 respirator, available at many hardware stores and from companies that advertise on the Internet. (They cost about $12 to $25.) Some N-95 respirators resemble a paper dust mask with a nozzle on the front, others are made primarily of plastic or rubber and have removable cartridges that trap most of the mold spores from entering. In order to be effective, the respirator or mask must fit properly, so carefully follow the instructions supplied with the respirator. Please note that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that respirators fit properly (fit testing) when used in an occupational setting; consult OSHA for more information (800-321-OSHA).
  • Wear gloves. Long gloves that extend to the middle of the forearm are recommended. When working with water and a mild detergent, ordinary household rubber gloves may be used. If you are using a disinfectant, a biocide such as chlorine bleach, or a strong cleaning solution, you should select gloves made from natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, polyurethane, or PVC. Avoid touching mold or moldy items with your bare hands.
  • Wear goggles. To avoid getting mold or mold spores in your eyes, safety goggles that do not have ventilation holes are recommended.

How Do I Know When the Remediation or Cleanup is Finished?

You must have completely fixed the water or moisture problem before the cleanup or remediation can be considered finished.

  • You should have completed mold removal. Visible mold and moldy odors should not be present. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage.
  • You should have revisited the site(s) shortly after cleanup and it should show no signs of water damage or mold growth.
  • People should have been able to occupy or reoccupy the area without health complaints or physical symptoms.
  • Ultimately, this is a judgment call; there is no easy answer. If you have concerns or questions call the EPA Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse IAQ INFO at (800) 438-4318.

Moisture and Mold Prevention and Control Tips

  • Moisture control is the key to mold control, so when water leaks or spills occur indoors - ACT QUICKLY. If wet or damp materials or areas are dried 24-48 hours after a leak or spill happens, in most cases mold will not grow.
  • Clean and repair roof gutters regularly.
  • Make sure the ground slopes away from the building foundation, so that water does not enter or collect around the foundation.
  • Keep air conditioning drip pans clean and the drain lines unobstructed and flowing properly.
  • Keep indoor humidity low. If possible, keep indoor humidity below 60 percent (ideally between 30 and 50 percent) relative humidity. Relative humidity can be measured with a moisture or humidity meter, a small, inexpensive ($10-$50) instrument available at many hardware stores.
  • If you see condensation or moisture collecting on windows, walls or pipes ACT QUICKLY to dry the wet surface and reduce the moisture/water source. Condensation can be a sign of high humidity.

Actions that will help to reduce humidity:

  • Vent appliances that produce moisture, such as clothes dryers, stoves, and kerosene heaters to the outside where possible. (Combustion appliances such as stoves and kerosene heaters produce water vapor and will increase the humidity unless vented to the outside.)
  • Use air conditioners and/or dehumidifiers when needed.
  • Run the bathroom fan or open the window when showering. Use exhaust fans or open windows whenever cooking, running the dishwasher or washing dishes, etc.

Actions that will help prevent condensation:

  • Reduce the humidity (see above).
  • Increase ventilation or air movement by opening doors and/or windows, when practical. Use fans as needed.
  • Cover cold surfaces, such as cold water pipes, with insulation.
  • Increase air temperature.

Suspicion of hidden mold

You may suspect hidden mold if a building smells moldy, but you cannot see the source, or if you know there has been water damage and residents are reporting health problems. Mold may be hidden in places such as the back side of dry wall, wallpaper, or paneling, the top side of ceiling tiles, the underside of carpets and pads, etc. Other possible locations of hidden mold include areas inside walls around pipes (with leaking or condensing pipes), the surface of walls behind furniture (where condensation forms), inside ductwork, and in roof materials above ceiling tiles (due to roof leaks or insufficient insulation).

Investigating hidden mold problems

Investigating hidden mold problems may be difficult and will require caution when the investigation involves disturbing potential sites of mold growth. For example, removal of wallpaper can lead to a massive release of spores if there is mold growing on the underside of the paper. If you believe that you may have a hidden mold problem, consider hiring an experienced professional.

Cleanup and Biocides

Biocides are substances that can destroy living organisms. The use of a chemical or biocide that kills organisms such as mold (chlorine bleach, for example) is not recommended as a routine practice during mold cleanup. There may be instances, however, when professional judgment may indicate its use (for example, when immune-compromised individuals are present). In most cases, it is not possible or desirable to sterilize an area; a background level of mold spores will remain - these spores will not grow if the moisture problem has been resolved. If you choose to use disinfectants or biocides, always ventilate the area and exhaust the air to the outdoors. Never mix chlorine bleach solution with other cleaning solutions or detergents that contain ammonia because toxic fumes could be produced.

 

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